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Thursday, December 10, 2009


Hello class,
The PPT was not able to load up, but here are the notes that you will need. Make sure they are printed out or copied by tomorrow 12/11/09.

  • Key terms: A. Craftspeople, B. flourish, C. fertile, D. potter, E. floodplain, F. savanna, G. Sahel
    • 1.___People who are skilled at making things with their hands
    • 2.___Flat land near a river that may be covered with water during a flood
    • 3.___To grow or do very well
    • 4.___Good for plants to grow in
    • 5.___A person who makes pottery
    • 6.___grassland with scattered trees and plant growth
    • 7.___the shore of the desert
  • Roots of a Mighty Empire
  • Ancient times
    • 5000 BC the Sahara was flowing with rivers green pastures and forests.
    • 4000 BC rain fell less often and temperatures had risen.
    • 2500 BC climate à Dry and Hot
  • Change in climate
    • Land became bare and bleak / desert
  • Changes à people moving to
    • Sahel (8 climate zones)
      • Shore of the desert
      • Temperatures range from dessert in the north to vegetation in the south.
      • Occasional rainfall makes farming possible
    • Banks of the Niger River : Semi-arid/tropical, wet and dry
  • Nok 500BC-200AD
    • Lived in West Africa, Present day Nigeria
    • Had iron as a resource (450BC)
      • Use iron instead of stone
    • Used iron for spear points and farming tools
      • Lives improved because of the iron
    • Potters
      • Used clay to build huts and craft sculptures
  • The city of Jenne-Jeno 250BC – 1400AD present day Mali
    • Advantages of the city’s location:
      • Niger River àRich soil à farming
    • Resources: abundant crops, cattle, fish
    • Trade: rice, fish, baskets, pottery of salt, copper, stone, iron tools and gold jewelry
      • means they were great artisans
    • city was abandoned in 1400AD

Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Africa Unit video questions

Directions: Take notes on ways that people in Africa, like all people, are affected by their geography. Example, drilling in Nigeria, deforestation in Ghana, and habitat destruction in Uganda.

Link to video questions on West and East Africa.

8th grade image & textbook bibliography guide

Citing an Online Image

Very important! If you are citing an image found in Google Images or any other image retrieval service, be certain to cite the image in its original context. Do not provide the URL of the enlarged image - you must use the URL of the page where the image was originally shown.

* Image creator's last name, first name, if available, or page author's name if available, followed by a period and a space
* Title of photo followed by a period, in quotation marks. If no title, describe briefly within quotation marks.
* Descriptive word (photo, map, cartoon, drawing, etc,) followed by a period and a space
* Website title in italics, followed by a space
* Website publication date in DD Mo. YYYY format followed by a period and a space
* Date image was viewed in DD Mo. YYYY format followed by a space
* Web address in angle brackets, followed by a period

Suzuki, Lea. "Mick Jaggar." Photo. 14 Nov. 2005. 14 Nov. 2005.


Citing a book with multiple authors

List the authors of a book in the same order they are printed on the book. Reverse the name of the first author, insert a comma, then write the remaining names in normal form. If there are more than three authors you may choose to list them all, or to list only the first, followed by et al. (and others).

* Last name, first name, remaining names, followed by a period and a space


* Last name, first name et al., followed by a period and a space
* Title of book in italics, followed by a period and a space
* City of publication, followed by a colon and a space
* Name of publisher, followed by a comma and a space
* Year of publication, followed by a period.

Borden, Sara, Sarah Miller, Alex Stikeleather, Maria Valladares, and Miriam Yelton. Middle

School: How to Deal. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2005.


Borden, Sara, et al. Middle School: How to Deal. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2005.

Original information can be found at: